Rye Baking Tests
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Yeast Baking Test
Recipe and Procedure
Flour Yeast Salt Water Hydration Dough
temp
Dough
resting time
g g g ml % C - F hours
1000*) 10 15 700-780 70-78 29 - 85 0.5
*) with 14 % flour humidity
The water amount depends on the flour type. Shape dough after 0.5 hour resting time and bake with regular fermentation. Fermenting time dependent on flour quality between 40 and 60 minutes. Baking time 1 hour with starting at 250 C - 482 F for 5-10 minutes, then continue with 220 C - 428 F. Supply sufficient steam initially then, after 1 minute, open steam outlet for about 5 minutes.

Assessment
Bread evaluation: 15-20 hours after baking. Due to missing acidification (rye flours are rarely bakeable without) significant bread defects have to be expected. The degree of defect serves to judge the flour quality. The yeast baking test distinguishes very well with rye flours with low enzyme activity.
Crumb Picture Baking value Baking capacity Processing value
closed 6 very good satisfactory
lifted crust or crumb crack 5 good still good
lifted crust, waterstripe tendency 3-4 still good good
strongly lifted crust, waterstripe 2 satisfactory satisfactory
collapsed crumb, broad slickstripe 1 insufficient not satisfactory
Conclusions for baking production require some experience since the results of this baking test can be influenced by different hydration, low fermenation or disadvanageous baking conditions.
Lactic Acid Baking Test
Recipe and Procedure
Flour Lactic Acid Yeast Salt Water Hydration Dough temperature Dough resting time
g ml g g ml % C hours
1000*) 7-10 10 15 700-780 70 - 78 29 0.5
*) with 14 % flour humidity
Different amounts of lactic acid and water are set for the lactic acid baking test. Depending on rye flour type **), they are defined as follows:
Rye Flour type Lactic Acid Water
  ml ml
815 7 700
997 8 730
1150 9 750
1370 10 780
**) The flour type number is the approximate ash content in mg of 100 g dry flour material. The rye flour types here are defined and used in Germany, only flours with defined type numbers can be traded there. There is no real equivalent category for US rye flour types. They are: light rye with 0.55 % - 0.65 % ash content, medium rye with 0.65 % - 1.0 % ash content, dark rye and rye meal which are full grain flours and have no ash contend definition (Source - nw, cache - nw). US medium rye flour would be type 815 or 997.
If flour humidity differs from 14 %, the water amount needs to be adjusted accordingly.
After resting time, shape and bake fully fermented. Baking time 1 hour with starting at 250 C - 482 F for 5-10 minutes, then continue with 220 C - 428 F. Supply sufficient steam initially then, after 1 minute, open steam outlet for about 5 minutes. (Workgroup Grainresearch, 1993)
Assessment
Bread evaluation: 15-20 hours after baking. Besides bread shape and browning of crust, crumb consistency can be used for evaluation (see table below). With this, special consideration has to be given to crumb elasticity. Weakened crumb elasticity indicates flours with insufficient bakeability. Smaller deficiencies in crumb elasticity have to be interpreted in such a way that the tested flour is usable when used with sourdough. With a one-stage baking process *), higher acidification is indicated. The taste aspect with this baking test allows judgement about deficiencies due to failures in storing grain or flour.
*) one-stage baking process: All ingredients are mixed in one stage, there is no growing of first/second/ripe leaven sponges (defined here - in new window).
Crumb Elasticity Baking performance Processing value
good normal still good
still good somewhat wet baking good
satisfactory - imperfect wet baking satisfactory
imperfect - insufficient strongly impaired unsatisfactory
Original test information from G. Spicher/H. Stephan sourdough manual translated and adopted under under fair use copyright.
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